More Info about the Permian
By the end of the Paleozoic Era, most of the oceans that had opened during the breakup of Pannotia, were consumed
as the continents collided to form the supercontinent of Pangea,.centered on the Equator, Pangea stretched from the South Pole
to the North Pole, and separated the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to the east, from the Panthalassic Ocean to the west.
During the Late Carboniferous and Early Permian the southern regions of Pangea (southern South America and southern
Africa, Antarctica, India, southern India, and Australia) were glaciated. Evidence of a north polar ice cap in eastern Siberia during
the Late Permian.
The broad Central Pangean mountain range formed an equatorial highland that during late Carboniferous was the locus of
coal production in an equatorial rainy belt. By the mid-Permian, the Central Pangean mountain range had moved northward into
drier climates and the interior of North America and Northern Europe became desert-like as the continued uplift of the mountain
range blocked moisture-laden equatorial winds.
The term "Pangea" means "all land". Though we call the supercontinent that formed at the end of the Paleozoic Era,
"Pangea", this supercontinent probably did not include all the landmasses that existed at that time. In the eastern hemisphere,
on either side of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, there were continents that were separated from the supercontinent. These continents
were North and South China, and a long "windshield-wiper"-shaped continent known as Cimmeria.
Cimmeria consisted of parts of Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, Tibet, Indochina and Malaya. It appears to have rifted away from
the Indo-Australian margin of Gondwana during the Late Carboniferous - Early Permian. Together with the Chinese continents,
Cimmeria moved northwards towards Eurasia, ultimately colliding along the southern margin of Siberia during the late Triassic
Period. It was only after the collision of these Asian fragments that all the world's landmasses were joined together in a
supercontinent deserving of the name "Pangea".